Articulation Disorder:

Producing speech sounds incorrectly.  Signs of an Articulation Disorder include:

  • Deleting a sound in a word (e.g., uck for duck or ba for bat)
  • Substituting one sound for another (e.g., lello instead of yello)
  • Adding an extra sound to a word (e.g. balue for blue)
  • Distorting the sound (e.g., lisp on the “s” sound)
  • Vowel errors or distortions of sounds
  • Friends/family as well as strangers have a hard time understanding what your child is saying.

Phonological Processes:

Patterns in speech that are typical in development.  As a child develops, persistent phonological processes are viewed as atypical. 

Phonological Processes include:

  • Final consonant deletion: consonant or syllable is deleted at the end of the word. (e.g., co for coke)
  • Backing: producing a back sound, such as /k/ or /g/ instead of front sounds, /t/ and /d/. (e.g., bag for bat). This can occur in the beginning or end of words.
  • Stopping: producing a stop sound, such as /t/ or /d/ instead of fricative sounds, /f/ and /s/. (e.g., tock for sock)
  • Gliding: producing the glide sounds, /w/ or /y/ instead of liquid consonants, /r/ and /l/. (e.g., wait for late)
  • Fronting: Producing a front sound, /t/ or /d/ instead of
    a back sound, /k/ and /g/. (e.g., “tat” for “cat”)
  • Consonant Harmony:  Carrying over the final sound to the initial sound (e.g., toat for coat)